The house is essentially an insulated rain and windproof box, which in theory could be placed on the ground and moved in calmly. In practice, it is a bit more complicated. Namely, moisture exudes from the inside of the ground, and in winter, with cold, the frozen ground expands and can thus destroy the structure of your building. In order to prevent the house from being damaged by moisture or ground movement, a foundation is built under the house, which then separates the house from the ground. Types of foundation according to the specifics of the location and financial possibilities:
The most common type of foundation is strip foundation. A ditch is dug into the ground and blocks or a strip of reinforced concrete in the shape of a house are poured into it, which is usually up to half a meter above the ground. The above-ground part of the foundation is called the plinth. The tape foundation is also built under the interior walls of the house, which have a load-bearing function. The strip foundation is completed as follows – first, a deep ditch of the foundation is dug, about 20 cm of gravel is placed at the bottom of the ditch and it is tamped evenly with a soil compactor. A reinforced concrete platform is poured on the compacted gravel. The foundation is laid on the base from either foundation or lightweight blocks, or instead poured from concrete. The inner part of the foundation is filled with compacted filling material and a floorboard is poured on it. As a rule, the strip foundation and the floor are separate constructions. At the same time, it is possible to make a strip foundation so that the floor does not rest on the compacted soil but on the foundation.
In addition to the tape foundation, a slab foundation is also used. The most important difference between a slab foundation and a slab foundation is that the slab foundation has the floor cast together with the foundation part, whereas in the case of a slab foundation, the floor structure is separate from the foundation. Slab contraction joints should intersect at the openings for columns. First the soil is peeled, then a large compacted pad is made with a soil compactor, and a house-sized reinforced concrete slab is poured on top of this pad. Which foundation is right for your house depends mainly on the type of soil and how big and from what material your house will be built. As the foundation is literally the main part of the house and it is impossible to correct the mistake made in the construction of the foundation later, the foundation must be designed very carefully and built with high quality. In order for the architect to be able to construct the foundation correctly, it is advisable to carry out earthworks. And while at first commissioning land surveys may seem like a pointless extra expense, in practice land surveys can save money. Based on the research, you can design a exactly the right foundation for your house and you don’t have to build the foundation with a small “margin”.
One of the simplest types of foundation is a post foundation. Piles or posts are pushed so deep into the ground that their load-bearing capacity is sufficient and a house can be built on top of the piles – no ground moisture problem or radon hazard. The post foundation is suitable for softer and evenly structured soils. The advantage of the post foundation is the speed of completion and cost savings.